China-made carbon fiber puzzle
Carbon fiber is a new type of polymer inorganic fiber material with carbon content above 95%, high strength and high modulus fiber. It has excellent mechanical properties and is widely used in aerospace, rail transit, vehicle manufacturing, weaponry, engineering machinery, Infrastructure construction, marine engineering, petroleum engineering, wind energy, sporting goods and other fields. Carbon fiber research and development has been listed as a national strategic emerging industry by China.
Current status of carbon fiber research
The main producing countries of carbon fiber include Japan, the United States, South Korea, some European countries and Taiwan. In the early stage of the development of carbon fiber technology, advanced technology countries have realized the importance of this material, and have carried out strategic layouts to promote the development of carbon fiber materials.
The key is mastering core technology
In the past, the core technology and production capacity of carbon fiber were mainly controlled by Japan, the United States and a few developed countries and regions in Europe. Due to its high technology content and high profit return, Western countries have imposed strict technical blockade on China for a long time. In recent years, China has made continuous breakthroughs in the field of carbon fiber:
In January 2016, the Chinese Academy of Sciences took the lead in realizing a major breakthrough in the domestic M55J preparation technology. In September of the same year, the preparation technology was verified, and high-strength high-mode carbon fibers with a tensile strength of 4.15 GPa and a tensile modulus of 585 GPa were obtained. The domestic M55J high-strength and high-mode carbon fiber is continuously and stably produced, and the dispersion coefficient of the fiber main body batch is<5%.
In 2018, high-strength high-mode carbon fiber with a tensile strength of 5.24 GPa and a tensile modulus of 593 GPa was successfully prepared, which was maintained in comparison with Japan Toray M60J high-strength high-mold carbon fiber (tensile strength 3.92 GPa, tensile modulus 588 GPa). The advantage in tensile strength.
In 2019, Zhang Shouchun, a researcher at the Shanxi Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, built a T-1000 ultra-high-strength carbon fiber. The polyacrylonitrile-based ultra-high-strength carbon fiber prepared by the key deployment project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences passed the acceptance test and successfully developed. Polyacrylonitrile-based new hollow carbon fiber.
Current problems in the development of carbon fiber in China
1. The core technology of industrialization technology and equipment has not yet broken through in essence and is at a disadvantage in market competition.
2. The major basic scientific issues in the development and application of carbon fiber have not yet been proven, and high-end carbon fiber and its composite materials still have a generation difference with foreign countries.
3. Most of the application areas lack the ability of composite material design-manufacturing-evaluation-assessment and verification. The problem of “no use, bad use” is prominent, and the development of carbon fiber industry lacks large-scale application and export.
4. The issue of the size and distribution of talents has not changed significantly.
As an important component of advanced composite materials, high-performance fiber represented by carbon fiber has great development potential and will maintain considerable vitality for a long time to come. In the next step, China's carbon fiber technology industry should focus on the high-performance carbon fiber and the new varieties of R&D and production required by the market, and play an active role in the development of China's composite materials industry and the upgrading of carbon fiber enterprises.